What You Should Know About LED Display Pixels


With the rapid advancement of science and technology, LED display screens have become an important carrier for information transmission and visual art expression in modern society. 

Whether in bustling urban streets, live broadcasts of sports events, or in commercial advertising, stage performances, and other fields, LED displays have won wide recognition for their excellent display effects and powerful expressiveness. Behind this, pixels, as the basic building blocks of LED displays, play a vital role.

Pixel is not only the smallest unit for displaying images on LED displays but also the intersection of technology and art. It is both a product of technological development and a medium for artistic creation.

1. Overview of LED display pixel technology

1). Define LED display pixels and their composition

Imagine that the LED display is like a huge canvas, and every small dot on this canvas is what we call a pixel. Each pixel is composed of three colors of LED lamp beads: red (R), green (G), and blue (B). They are like the three basic colors on the color palette. These LED lamp beads are very small, but their combination and changes can present brilliant and colorful images.

Just like a painter creates paintings by mixing different colors of paint on canvas, LED displays can display a variety of colors and images by controlling the brightness and combination of these red, green, and blue LED beads. Whether it is blue sky and white clouds, green trees and red flowers, or complex text, images, and videos, they can all be displayed through precise control of pixels.

2). Pixel drive technology

So, how are these tiny LED lamp beads controlled? This involves pixel drive technology. We can think of pixel-driving technology as a conductor, which is responsible for directing how the LED lamp beads in each pixel emit light.

Specifically, pixel-driving technology controls the brightness and color of each pixel through a driving circuit. This drive circuit is like a complex circuit network that can accurately transmit image data to each pixel and control the brightness and color of the LED lamp beads in each pixel. Just like a conductor directs the performance of an orchestra through a baton, pixel drive technology precisely controls the display effect of each pixel through a circuit network.

3). Pixel arrangement

When it comes to how pixels are arranged, it’s like how you lay out paint on a canvas. Common pixel arrangements include RGB vertical arrangement and RGBW four-color arrangement.

The RGB vertical arrangement is like placing the three colors of red, green, and blue paints in sequence in the vertical direction. This arrangement ensures that each pixel contains complete red, green, and blue color information, thereby achieving a full-color gamut display. It’s like having a complete color palette placed at every position on the canvas, making the entire image rich in color and clear in detail.

The RGBW four-color arrangement adds white (W) LED lamp beads on the basis of the three RGB colors. It’s like adding white paint to the palette, increasing the brightness and contrast of the entire image. The addition of white LED lamp beads can improve the brightness and contrast of the display, making the display brighter and clearer.

2. Pixel density and resolution

1). Definition and calculation method of pixel density and resolution

Pixel density is usually expressed as PPI (Pixels Inch, pixels per inch), which refers to the number of pixels that can be displayed per unit length or unit area. Specifically, pixel density can be calculated by the following formula:

Pixel density = (display area length/pixel pitch) × (display area width/pixel pitch)

For example, in a P2.5 LED display, the pixel pitch is 2.5mm, and the pixel density is (1000mm/2.5mm) × (1000mm/2.5mm) = 160000 dots/m².

Resolution is the number of pixels that the display can display in the horizontal and vertical directions, usually expressed in the form of “number of horizontal pixels × number of vertical pixels”. For example, the resolution of a P2.5 LED display is 400×400 pixels in a display area of 1 square meter.

2). The impact of high pixel density and high resolution on display effects

High pixel density and high resolution can significantly improve the display effect of LED displays. First of all, higher pixel density means that more pixels can be displayed per unit area, which makes the image more detailed and the picture more delicate.

Secondly, high resolution means that the display screen can display more pixels in both horizontal and vertical directions, which allows the image to be presented more accurately in both horizontal and vertical directions, avoiding stretching and compression of the picture.

Therefore, LED displays with high pixel density and high resolution can provide clearer and more realistic display effects.

3). Differences in pixel density and resolution requirements in different application scenarios

Different application scenarios have different requirements for the pixel density and resolution of LED displays. 

For example, in the field of outdoor advertising, due to the long viewing distance, higher pixel density and resolution are required to ensure the clarity and readability of advertisements. In application scenarios such as indoor conferences or video walls, the requirements for pixel density and resolution are relatively low due to the short viewing distance. 

In addition, in some special application scenarios, such as virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality (AR), due to the need to present more realistic and delicate image effects, the requirements for pixel density and resolution are higher.

4). Challenges and Solutions for Improving Pixel Density and Resolution

Improving the pixel density and resolution of LED displays faces several challenges. First, as pixel density increases, the area of each pixel decreases, which may result in lower brightness and inaccurate color representation of the pixels. 

In order to solve this problem, more advanced LED materials and driving technologies can be used to improve the brightness and color accuracy of pixels. Secondly, increasing the resolution requires increasing the number of pixels on the display, which may lead to higher costs and increased energy consumption. 

To reduce costs and energy consumption, more efficient drive circuits and energy-saving technologies can be used. In addition, the heat dissipation of the display also needs to be considered because displays with high pixel density and high resolution will generate more heat when working.

To solve this problem, more advanced heat dissipation designs and materials can be used to improve the heat dissipation performance of the display.

3. The impact of pixels on the display effect of LED display

1). Pixel brightness and contrast

The brightness and contrast of pixels directly determine the clarity and visibility of the LED display when displaying images or videos.

  • Pixel brightness:

 Higher pixel brightness means that the content on the LED display is still clearly visible in a bright environment. Especially outdoors or in high-brightness environments, high-brightness pixels are a key factor in ensuring the visibility of displayed content.

  • Contrast Ratio: 

Contrast ratio refers to the degree of difference between the black and white colors displayed on the screen. High-contrast LED displays can show richer color levels and deeper blacks, making images clearer and more realistic. High contrast is especially important when displaying text or images with high contrast between black and white.

2). Pixel color performance

Pixel color performance has an important impact on the color reproduction of the picture.

The color reproduction capability of the full-color LED display relies on the precise control of red, green, and blue LED beads in each pixel. Advanced pixel adjustment technology and color correction technology can ensure that the color of the light emitted by each pixel is accurate, thereby achieving high color reproduction of the picture.

The LED display with high color reproduction can truly and accurately present the color of the image, making the picture more vivid and vivid. This is critical for displaying image and video content with high color requirements.

3). Pixel response time

Pixel response time has an important impact on the smoothness of dynamic images on LED displays.

Response time is the time it takes for a pixel to switch from one state to another. Fast response times help avoid blur, smearing, or interference in moving images. When displaying high-speed motion scenes or videos, the fast response time ensures image clarity and smoothness.

High refresh rates and low latency are also key factors in improving response times. The high refresh rate can ensure that images are updated quickly on the screen, while the low latency can reduce the delay time from signal input to image display, further improving the smoothness of the picture.

4). Pixel failure and maintenance

Pixel failure is a problem that may be encountered during the use of LED displays, which will affect the display effect and viewing experience.

Reasons for pixel failure may include LED lamp bead damage, drive circuit failure, or external environmental factors. When pixels fail, bright spots, dark spots, or unresponsive pixels may appear on the screen, affecting the integrity and clarity of the picture.

Effective maintenance strategies need to be adopted to reduce the occurrence of pixel failures. For example, regularly check the operating status of the display screen to detect and repair faults in a timely manner; use high-quality LED lamp beads and drive circuits to improve the reliability and stability of the display screen.

Keep the display screen clean and dry to avoid external environmental factors affecting the performance of the display screen. The impact of the display screen, etc.

4. The influence of pixel spacing on LED display

The pixel pitch of the LED display has a significant impact on the display effect, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

  • Clarity and detail performance:

Pixel pitch directly determines the density of pixels on the display. A smaller pixel pitch means more pixels per unit area, thereby improving image clarity and detail. For close viewing or scenes that require a high-resolution display, such as indoor meetings, exhibitions, etc., smaller pixel pitches can ensure that viewers see clear and detailed images.

  • Viewing distance and visual experience: 

The choice of pixel pitch should be determined based on the distance between the viewer and the display. The closer the viewer is to the display, the smaller the pixel spacing required to maintain picture clarity. On the contrary, the farther the audience is from the display screen, the pixel spacing can be appropriately increased.

For example, in long-distance viewing scenarios such as outdoor billboards or stadiums, a larger pixel pitch can still ensure that the image remains clearly visible at a distance.

  • Cost and technical difficulty: 

The smaller the pixel pitch of an LED display, the higher its manufacturing cost and technical difficulty are usually. This is because smaller pixel pitches require higher precision and more complex production processes. 

Therefore, when choosing a pixel pitch, it is necessary to consider cost factors and select the most cost-effective pixel pitch on the premise of meeting the viewing distance and resolution requirements.

  • Application scenario requirements:

Different application scenarios have different requirements for the pixel spacing of LED displays. For example, high-definition video conferencing, digital billboards, etc., require higher resolution and smaller pixel pitch to ensure image clarity and detailed performance. Some scenes, such as large outdoor billboards and stadiums, have relatively low-resolution requirements, so a larger pixel spacing can be appropriately selected.

5. How to choose the pixel spacing that suits you

When choosing the pixel pitch of an LED display that suits you, you need to consider multiple factors to ensure the best visual effect and cost performance. Here are some recommended steps:

  • Determine viewing distance:

Viewing distance is the primary factor in choosing pixel pitch. The distance between the audience and the display screen should be 1.5 times to 3 times the height of the display screen. For example, if the audience is about 3 meters away from the display, then choosing a pixel pitch of P3 or P4 may be appropriate.

  • Analysis of application scenarios:

Different application scenarios have different requirements for pixel spacing.

For scenes that need to display high-definition picture quality, such as video conferencing, digital billboards, etc., a smaller pixel pitch should be selected.

For scenes such as large outdoor billboards and stadiums, a larger pixel spacing can be appropriately selected.

Considering visual requirements, such as image display, video playback, and other scenes that require high definition and details, it is usually necessary to choose a smaller pixel pitch.

  • Calculate pixel density and resolution:

Based on the viewing distance and the size of the display, the required pixel density and resolution can be calculated. This allows for a more precise selection of pixel spacing.

For example, use the formula “Pixel pitch (mm) = viewing distance (m) / 1000 (indoor applications)” or “Pixel pitch (mm) = viewing distance (m) / 750 (outdoor applications)” as a reference.

  • Consider cost factors:

On the premise of meeting the viewing distance and resolution requirements, cost factors are comprehensively considered. Choose the most cost-effective pixel pitch, which can not only meet the usage needs but also save costs.

  • Reference common specifications:

Understand the common pixel pitch specifications, such as P1, P2, P3, P4, etc., and choose the appropriate specifications according to your needs.

P1 point pitch (pixel pitch is 1mm) LED display is mainly used for indoor high-definition display, such as conference rooms, TV stations, etc., while P6 point pitch (pixel pitch is 6mm) LED display is suitable for indoor and outdoor complex environments, with Good protective performance and durability.

  • Consider other factors:

In addition to the above factors, other factors can also be considered, such as the brightness, contrast, color performance, etc., of the display screen to ensure that the overall display effect meets the needs.

  • Consult a professional:

When choosing the pixel pitch, you can consult LED display manufacturers, suppliers, or professionals for more professional advice and guidance.

6. LED display pixel technology development trends

Looking to the future, the pixel technology of LED displays will continue to develop in a higher, faster, and richer direction.

First of all, higher pixel density and resolution will become an important trend in future development. As technology advances, we can expect LED displays to continue to increase in pixel density and resolution, allowing for more detailed and realistic display effects. This will make the display of images and videos on the LED display more realistic and vivid.

Secondly, more efficient drive technology will also be the focus of future development. By using more advanced driving technologies, such as PWM technology and dynamic scan driving technology, we can further improve the brightness and contrast of the display, making the display effect even better.

In addition, more color performance will also be an important direction for future development. In addition to the traditional three colors of red, green, and blue, we can also add more color information, such as white, purple, etc., to enrich the color performance of the display. This will make the LED display screen richer and more colorful in color performance.

Finally, a more flexible pixel arrangement will also be a future development trend. According to different application scenarios and needs, we can design more flexible pixel arrangements to adapt to different display needs. This will make the application scenarios of LED displays more extensive and diverse.


Through the discussion of LED display pixel technology, it is not difficult to find that pixels, as the basic unit of LED display screens, not only carry the wisdom of science and technology but also contain the charm of art. With the continuous advancement and innovation of technology, the pixel technology of LED displays will continue to develop, bringing us better display effects and richer artistic expressions.

Finally, if you want to know more information about LED displays, please get in touch with us.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Let's Start Our Story NOW!

Get 2023 New Price for LED Screen NOW