Introduction To LED Display Unit Board: 2 Minutes Quick Overview


Today, with the rapid development of digitization and informatization, LED displays have become an indispensable part of our daily lives. Whether it is a bustling commercial district or a solemn sports venue, LED display screens provide us with a wide variety of visual information with their high brightness, high definition, and bright colors.

Behind this, the unit board of the LED display plays a key role. As the basic component of the LED display screen, the performance and quality of the unit board directly affect the display effect and service life of the entire display screen. Therefore, understanding the basic knowledge of LED display unit boards is of great significance for us to better apply and maintain LED displays.

1. Basic concepts of LED display unit board

LED display unit board, also called LED display module or simply unit board, is the main component unit of LED display screen. It plays a core role in the entire display screen, is responsible for presenting images and text, and is the display basis of the LED display screen.

The basic components of the unit board mainly include LED lamp beads, drive circuits, PCB boards (printed circuit boards), and other parts.

  • LED lamp beads: 

LED lamp beads are the main body of the unit board that emits light and are responsible for generating light. These lamp beads are combined in a certain arrangement, and by controlling their on and off and brightness, various images and text can be presented.

  • Drive circuit:

The drive circuit is the key part of controlling the lighting and brightness of LED lamp beads. It receives signals from the control system (such as microcontroller, TTL logic gate chip, etc.), and then converts these signals into current signals that can drive LED lamp beads. The performance of the drive circuit directly affects the display effect and stability of the LED display.

  • PCB board:

The PCB board is the substrate of the unit board and carries components such as LED lamp beads and drive circuits. The design and manufacturing quality of PCB boards have an important impact on the performance of unit boards. It needs to have good conductivity, stability, and heat dissipation to ensure that the LED lamp beads and drive circuit can work properly.

In addition, the unit board also includes some auxiliary components, such as plastic kits, connectors, etc., which are used to fix and protect components such as LED lamp beads and drive circuits, as well as to achieve connection and Installation between unit boards.

In the LED display industry, unit boards are divided into two categories: indoor unit boards and outdoor unit boards, according to their use environment and performance characteristics.

Indoor unit boards are generally called surface mount (three-in-one surface mount), which have the characteristics of high image definition and rich colors, but the price is relatively high; outdoor unit boards have the characteristics of high brightness, waterproof, and good weather resistance, but Installation requires technical guidance.

2. Types of LED display unit boards

LED display unit boards can be divided into many types according to the environment they are used in and their performance characteristics. The following are several common types, their characteristics, and applicable scenarios:

1). Indoor LED display unit board:

  • Features:

High image definition, rich colors, good color reproduction, and capable of presenting delicate image and video effects. At the same time, since the indoor environment is relatively stable, this type of unit panels usually do not need to be considered waterproof, dustproof, or other properties.

  • Applicable scenarios:

Mainly used in commercial advertising, indoor conferences, exhibitions, and other places that require a high-definition display, such as shopping malls, conference rooms, museums, etc.

2). Outdoor LED display unit board:

  • Features: 

High brightness; able to maintain a clear display under strong sunlight; waterproof, dustproof, and anti-corrosion; able to adapt to complex and changing outdoor environmental conditions; wide viewing angle, ensuring that viewers from different angles can see clear images.

  • Applicable scenarios:

Mainly used in outdoor advertising, sports venues, building exterior walls, and other display places that require large areas, high brightness, and high stability.

3). Semi-outdoor LED display unit board:

  • Features: 

Between the indoor type and the outdoor type, it has certain waterproof and dustproof capabilities, but the brightness is slightly inferior to the outdoor type. At the same time, since it does not require particularly high brightness, its power consumption is relatively low.

  • Applicable scenarios: 

Mainly used in semi-outdoor environments, such as corridors, porches, under eaves, and other places that require certain waterproof and dustproof capabilities.

4). High-density LED display unit board:

  • Features:

 High pixel density can achieve higher-definition display effects; suitable for close viewing, it can present more delicate images and text.

  • Applicable scenarios:

Mainly used in places that require a high-definition display, such as TV walls, monitoring centers, command centers, etc.

It should be noted that the above classification is not absolute. LED display unit boards of different manufacturers and models may have different characteristics and applicable scenarios. When selecting, comprehensive considerations should be made based on specific needs and the use environment.

3. Working principle of LED display unit board

The working principle of the LED display unit board involves the lighting principle of the LED lamp beads and the control method of the drive circuit. Here’s a quick overview of how it works:

  • The luminous principle of LED lamp beads

LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a semiconductor device whose light-emitting principle is based on the electroluminescence effect of semiconductor materials.

When a forward voltage is applied between the P-type semiconductor and the N-type semiconductor of the LED, electrons will move from the N-type semiconductor to the P-type semiconductor, while holes (positions lacking electrons) will move from the P-type semiconductor to the N-type semiconductor. 

When electrons and holes meet and recombine at the PN junction, energy is released. This energy is emitted in the form of photons, which is the light we see from the LED.

  • Drive circuit control method.

The drive circuit in the LED display unit board is mainly responsible for controlling the brightness of the LED lamp beads on and off. The drive circuit receives signals from the control system and, through decoding and conversion, converts these signals into instructions that can control the current of the LED lamp beads.

These instructions can directly control the on and off of the LED lamp bead, or they can adjust the current flowing through the LED lamp bead to control its brightness.

For color LED displays, the drive circuit also needs to control LED lamp beads of different colors to achieve a full-color display. This is usually achieved by controlling the brightness of a combination of red, green, and blue LED lamp beads.

  • The key role of the unit board is to display images, text, videos, and other information.

The LED display unit board is the basic unit that constitutes the entire LED display. It realizes image display by controlling the brightness of the LED lamp beads on and off. When displaying information such as images, text, videos, etc., the control system will convert the input signal into a format suitable for LED display unit board processing and then transmit it to the unit board.

After receiving these signals, the drive circuit in the unit board will control the on and off and brightness of the LED lamp beads according to the instructions, thereby presenting the required image or information.

Because the LED display unit board is highly flexible and controllable, it can achieve various complex display effects, such as dynamic images, videos, rolling subtitles, etc.

At the same time, due to its high brightness, wide viewing angle, and low power consumption, LED displays have been widely used in various occasions, such as commercial advertising, sports venues, stage performances, etc.

4. Performance parameters of LED display unit board

The main performance parameters of the LED display unit board play a key role in its display effect and overall performance. Here is an explanation of some of the key parameters and their impact:

1). Pixel density:

  • Explanation: Pixel density refers to the number of pixels per unit area, usually expressed in “Pixels per Square Meter, ppm” (Pixels per Square Meter, ppm) or “Dot Pitch” (Dot Pitch). The smaller the dot pitch, the higher the pixel density and the clearer the image.

  • Impact: High pixel density results in more detailed and clear images, especially when viewed at close range. Therefore, for occasions that require high-resolution displays, such as commercial advertising, conference rooms, etc., pixel density is an important indicator.

2). Brightness:

  • Explanation: Brightness refers to the intensity of light emitted by the LED display, usually expressed in “candela per square meter” (cd/m²).

  • Impact: The higher the brightness, the display can still maintain a clear display effect outdoors or in a brightly lit environment. Therefore, outdoor LED displays usually require higher brightness. However, too high brightness may also lead to increased energy consumption and viewing discomfort.

3). Contrast:

  • Explanation: Contrast refers to the brightness ratio of the brightest part to the darkest part on the display. High contrast produces sharper and more vivid images.

  • Impact: Contrast is crucial to the sense of depth and dimension in an image. A high-contrast display delivers richer colors and deeper blacks, making images more vivid and realistic.

4). Perspective:

  • Explanation: Viewing angle refers to the maximum angle at which the screen content can be clearly seen from the left and right sides of the normal direction of the screen. The horizontal viewing angle and vertical viewing angle jointly determine the viewing range of the screen.

  • Impact: A larger viewing angle means that more people can clearly see screen content at different angles. Therefore, in situations where multiple people need to watch at the same time, such as conference rooms, stadiums, etc., a larger viewing angle is necessary.

In addition to the above parameters, the LED display unit board also has other performance parameters, such as color temperature, refresh rate, grayscale, etc. These parameters will also affect the overall performance of the display. In practical applications, it is necessary to select the appropriate LED display unit board according to specific needs and use environment.

5. Application fields of LED display unit board

LED display unit boards are widely used in many fields. Its unique performance and characteristics make it an important tool in advertising media, stage performances, sports venues, traffic instructions, and other fields. The following are application descriptions in these fields and some typical LED display project examples:

  • Advertising media field

In the field of advertising media, LED display unit boards can deliver advertising information and promotional activities quickly and in real-time while supporting high-definition and dynamic advertising content display, which greatly attracts people’s attention and increases brand awareness and exposure.

For example, Leyard, one of the leading brands in the LED industry, provided an LED stadium screen with a total area of nearly 2,000 square meters for the Qatar World Cup, which comprehensively improved the display effect of the stadium and brought a wonderful event experience to fans around the world.

2). Stage performance field

In stage performances, LED display unit boards not only improve the lighting effect but can also be used as stage scenery, background light, etc., providing the audience with information beyond the performance itself.

In recent years, LED electronic displays have become an indispensable multimedia prop for stage performances, enriching the content of the performance and providing the audience with a more diverse visual experience. 

For example, the use of large screens played a very important role in the opening and closing ceremonies of the “Tenth Sports Games of the People’s Republic of China” and the opening ceremony of the “International Tourism and Culture Festival.”

3). Stadium field

In sports venues, LED display unit boards can display event information, scores, advertisements, and other content in real-time, providing audiences with timely and accurate information and enhancing the viewing experience.

At the same time, its high-definition video playback function displays the event images more clearly and realistically, improving the audience’s visual experience. For example, the Shanghai Stadium chose a nearly 10,000-square-meter sky screen built by Shanghai Sansi to light up the entire stadium and bring a more shocking viewing experience to the audience.

4). Traffic instruction area

In the field of traffic instructions, the LED display unit board can be used as a variable information board to update information in real-time, provide passing drivers and pedestrians with timely traffic route information, such as traffic jams, road closures, etc., and guide vehicles to drive on prescribed routes.

In addition, the LED display screen in road monitoring can also display the speed limit mileage or brief traffic information of the road section to remind vehicles to drive at the speed limit and ensure driving safety. These functions provide strong support for the development of intelligent transportation systems.

6. Development trends of LED display unit boards

As the core component of the LED display screen, the technological development of the LED display unit board has been leading the progress of the entire LED display industry. At present, the development trend of LED display unit board technology is mainly reflected in aspects such as high definition, intelligence, and energy saving.

  • High-definition:

With the continuous advancement of display technology, the pixel density of LED display unit boards continues to increase, and the display effect becomes increasingly clear. In the future, high-definition will be one of the important directions for the development of LED display unit board technology.

Higher pixel density and more refined display effects will make LED displays more widely used in advertising media, stage performances, sports venues, and other fields.

  • Intelligence: 

Intelligence is another important trend in the development of LED display unit board technology. By integrating various smart sensors and algorithms, LED displays will be able to achieve richer human-computer interaction functions, such as voice recognition, somatosensory recognition, etc.

At the same time, through the combination of cloud computing, big data, and other technologies, LED displays will be able to achieve more powerful data processing capabilities and intelligent decision-making functions, providing users with more convenient and efficient services.

  • Energy saving:

 With the continuous improvement of environmental awareness, energy saving has also become an important direction for the development of LED display unit board technology. By using more efficient luminescent materials and drive circuits, LED displays will be able to achieve lower power consumption and longer service life.

At the same time, some new energy-saving technologies, such as LED energy-saving wireless modules, will also be widely used in LED display unit boards to further improve their energy-saving performance.

In the future, the possible development directions of LED display unit board technology include the following aspects:

  • Miniaturization:

With the continuous advancement of technology, the size of LED display unit boards will continue to shrink and achieve miniaturization. This will make LED displays more widely used in wearable devices, smart homes, and other fields.

  • Flexibility: 

Flexible LED display technology will gradually mature and be applied to actual products. Flexible LED displays have the characteristics of bending and folding, which will make LED displays more flexible in terms of shape and size.

  • Transparency: 

Transparent LED display technology will gradually become popular and used in more scenarios. The transparent LED display can realize transparent display and interactive functions, which will bring users a more unique visual experience.

From the perspective of market prospects, with the continuous development of LED display technology and the continuous expansion of application fields, the market demand for LED display unit boards will continue to grow.

Especially in the fields of advertising media, stage performances, sports venues, and other fields, high-definition, intelligent, and energy-saving LED display unit boards will be favored by more users. At the same time, with the continuous emergence and application of new technologies, the market prospects of LED display unit boards will be broader.


Through this brief introduction, it is not difficult to see the important position of LED display unit boards in modern display technology. With the continuous advancement of science and technology and the changing market demand, the technology of LED display unit boards is also constantly updated and upgraded.

Finally, if you want to know more about LED displays, please get in touch with us.

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